Friday, May 22, 2020

Impact Of Strokes And The Cognitive Mind - 1819 Words

Impact of Strokes and the Cognitive Mind Introduction While engaging this course and learning about the cognitive dissonance, it has provided the basis of the subject of research and discussion of strokes and the effect it has on the cognitive functions of the brain. Additionally, a personal summary will be shared and an in-depth review about the cognitive mind and what happen when a medical condition occurs. As the story begins one needs to understand how the cognitive development begins as a baby and the discrete stages of cognitive development, or â€Å"the emergence of the ability to think and understand†(Schater, et al, Page 319). Our textbook further describes that between the stages of infancy to adulthood there are three things that†¦show more content†¦Signs of a stroke are blurred vision or most commonly blurred speech. One could lose their balance or unable to walk. Most strokes are caused by a blood clot in the brain. When a stroke occurs, one needs to measure how much of the cognitive dissonance has been affected and what are the significant changes. The American Heart Association states the effects of the cognitive dissonance after stroke occurs: â€Å"Cognitive deficits are changes in thinking, like difficulty solving problems. This category also includes dementia and memory problems, as well as many kinds of communication challenges†(AMA, 2016) One can further understand that communication is altered when a stroke occurs. Research shows that the location of a stroke or blood clot in the brain makes a difference in whether or not, how affected the patient is and the struggle in starting the recovery process. Real-life Experience In spring of 2002, my father-n-law had a stroke. At the time, we were not sure if he would survive the incident, however, in hindsight, it may have been better that he did not, but he did and the aftermath was a hard consequence. His stroke was severe enough that the hospital had to put him under, so that a more efficient evaluation could be conducted. A transfer to Blodgett HospitalShow MoreRelated Heart Actions: Stroke 1240 Words   |  5 PagesHeart Actions: Stroke The cardiovascular system is mainly to pump blood around the body; it supplies fresh oxygenated blood from the lungs to organs around the body and returns it back again. Arteries supply fresh blood and veins return old blood. By one artery or blood vessel being blocked or damaged the flow of blood to the brain will suddenly stop and result of a stroke. Many consequences will come with a stroke but occupational therapy practitioners make stroke patients lives easierRead MorePhineas Gage and the Role of the Brain in Cognitive Functioning1087 Words   |  5 PagesPhineas Gage and the Role of the Brain in Cognitive Functioning BreAnne Warden PSY/360 December 5, 2011 Devlin Crose Phineas Gage and the Role of the Brain in Cognitive Functioning The brain plays a key role in cognitive functioning. Of the many areas in the brain, only certain areas have an impact on cognitive functioning. The case of a man named Phineas Gage showed key elements of specific areas in the brain that support certain cognitive functions. The traumatic brain injury that PhineasRead MoreDeclining Health for Middle Aged Adults Essay1704 Words   |  7 Pagesthat they need to be aware of and they must be proactive about addressing these concerns before they have adverse effects on their health. Some physical concerns middle age adults should be concerned with include hyperlipidemia, hypertension and stroke. Physical health concerns can often be linked to psychosocial health concerns. These may include depression and Post Traumatic Stress Disorder. Nurses can help middle age adults to reduce their risk of suffering from future physical and psychosocialRead MoreTaking a Look at Huntingtons Disease1686 Words   |  7 Pagesis a neurodegenerativ e disorder that is autosomal dominant, meaning the defective gene needs only be inherited from one parent. The cause of HD is a defect that occurs on chromosome 4 and as mentioned above is hereditary. This disease affects the cognitive, motor and emotional functions of the brain. Oliver Quarrell put in simpler terms the actions of the brain cells in a book he wrote stating the known facts of Huntington’s disease. Quarrell (1999) described a person with this disease to have, â€Å"someRead More1. Psychosocial Crisis: when a psychological need conflicts with the demands of society then that900 Words   |  4 Pagesby the world. If the parents are free minded and will expose their child to new things and will encourage him or her to take the new challenges then the child will be self-confident. 3. According to Vygotsky Culture is the prime determinant of cognitive development of a child. In his perspective a child needs to develop by existing under the influence of a culture. Child learns a lot from others. He or she can’t learn some things on their own. Some instructions are needed for their fruitful learningRead MoreMusic Therapy2049 Words   |  9 Pageseffectiveness of music therapy on the cognitive degenerative disorder of dementia will be evaluated. To support the contention that music therapy is effective in treating the symptoms of dementia, research documenting this therapy’s impact on memory, emotions, and behavior will be examined. In order to provide a greater understanding of music therapy and dementia, these terms will be defined. Second, research will be examined to determine music therapy’s impact on the psychological and behavioral issuesRead MoreThe Use Of Music And Singing On Young Adults Written By Eells ( 2014 )1649 Words   |  7 Pagestitled ‘The Use of Music and Singing to Help Manage Anxiety in Older Adults’ written by Eells (2014). I will also examine the relevance of the article for clinical practice and my future role as a mental health nurse. In conclusion, I will relay the impact the article has in my work placement and the experiences acquired. In writing the article Eells (2014) examined the rising evidence base for the use of music/singing in taking leisure and hospitable activities as therapeutic nursing interventionsRead MoreMusic And Spatial Task Performance1604 Words   |  7 Pagespotential contributing factor to the future success of any child (Winter 4). Second, it should be considered that executive function, the cognitive control system that allows for conscious, goal-directed problem solving, could be playing a major mediating role between music and improved cognition. Improved executive functioning will result in improvement in nearly all cognitive functions. Music has b een shown to influence executive function which is, unlike IQ, highly modifiable especially during childhoodRead MoreMemories Are Valuable Precious Artifacts Of The Mind Essay1332 Words   |  6 PagesMemories are considered precious artifacts of the mind. A variety of elements could impact and influence the way we remember things and if we remember things. Perhaps a traumatic brain injury, an untreated infection that has spread to the brain, or a brain tumor, even though these rarely take the blame this is still a possibility. Treatments for incurable diseases may cause memory problems with memory due to the adverse effects they have on the body and mind. Remembering what we are, what kind of personRead MoreMeditation As A State Of Mind With Predictable And Adjustable Attention979 Words   |  4 PagesMindfulness is, in the present moment, the state of mind with predictable and adjustable attention. Meditation is known for changing how people view the world (3). Mindfulness can c ome in many forms, like meditation, and is known for reducing the symptoms of mental illnesses like stress, distress, depression, and other mental health problems. Moreover, meditation is linked with mindfulness, and is known as a state of awareness alteration with the purpose of enhancing knowledge of oneself as well

Thursday, May 7, 2020

Economic Benefits of the Legalization of Marijuana Essay

The Economic Benefits of the Legalization of Marijuana Crimes related to marijuana have gotten out of control in our society. With more than 750,000(MPP.org) people arrested annually on charges related to marijuana its clear that a change needs to occur. A clear choice would be to crack down on the sale and manufacture of marijuana, but the smarter choice would be to legalize it. There are many economic benefits to the legalization of marijuana. The economic benefits that producers and consumers would receive are numerous, the tax that could be placed on a product would make the government a main benefactor as well, as well as the money saved on the enforcement of marijuana prohibition. The first argument for†¦show more content†¦One person is arrested for marijuana every 42 seconds. ( MPP.org). These numbers show just how outrageous the war against marijuana users has gotten. With an all time record breaking number of 755,186 arrests in 2003 (MPP.org), it is clear just how outrageous it is. The next strong reason to legalize marijuana would be the benefit the government would receive at all levels through savings on enforcement of marijuana prohibition. Currently the government spends nearly $12 billion annually on marijuana prohibition enforcement ( MPP.org). This $12 billion annually is spent on the Drug Enforcement Agency (DEA), Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), border control, prison systems, and many other programs. If the government were to legalize marijuana all of the people employed by the government could be placed elsewhere doing things like apprehending murderers, terrorists, rapists, and other criminals that cause harm to society. Or this $12 billion annually could be spent towards things like: improving our school systems, concentrating on drugs that are detrimental to our society like methamphetamines or heroin, or it could be put toward eliminating our nations debt. Also, the National Drug Control Strategy is asking for $11,679,300, 000.34 this year (Walters p. 6). Over $11 billion dollars unnecessarily spent on trying to control marijuana usage. Together, nearly $24 billion dollars that is coming out of the AmericanShow MoreRelatedThe Social Benefits of Legalization of Marijuana1459 Words   |  6 Pagesgive the definition of Marijuana that is important for my research. â€Å"Marijuana is a mixture of leaves, stems and flowering tops of the hemp plant.†(Marijuana, 317). Today in most countries soft narcotics and especially narcotics like marijuana are illegal. Marijuana is a misunderstood drug that is thought of as dangerous but it isn’t. Because of people’s ignorance and gullibility marijuana has become illegal for all the wrong reasons and should be re-examined for legalization. Society today cannotRead MoreShould Marijuana Be Legalized?1601 Words   |  7 Pagesuse of Marijuana is considered illegal in most of the states of the United States. Washington, Oregon, Colorado and Alaska legalized the use of Marijuana for medical and recreational purposes. Montana, Nevada, California, Arizona, New Mexico, Minnesota, Michigan, Illinois, New York, Vermont, Massachusetts, Connecticut, New Hampshire, Maine, Rhode Island, Delaware, New Jersey and Hawaii have legalized Marijuana for medical purposes only, the rest of the states have no laws legalizing marijuana (Governing)Read MoreEssay about Should We Legalize Marijuana in Canada?1081 Words   |  5 PagesTo Legalize or to Not Legalize: The Debate Behind Marijuana in Canada The legalization of marijuana is an issue that consistently discussed and debated, not only in North America, but throughout the entire world. Despite being illegal in every country, marijuana remains the most widely used illicit drug in the world. The popularity of this drug is the cause for the continuous legalization debate, resulting in various legislations pertaining to the consumption of the substance. Every country hasRead MoreLegalizing The Legalization Of Marijuana1012 Words   |  5 Pagesdiscourage is a way to fix the problem. Evident by Colorado and Washington, â€Å"the legalization of marijuana can stop most of these possession arrests† (Levine). After the first opening of the first retail marijuana stores on January 1, 2014, Colorado had decreased crime rates, decreased traffic fatalities and increase in economic output (DPA). Since 2010, the marijuana possession arrest have went down 84% since its legalization. The tactic of legalizing, controlling, and disco uraging has been proposed byRead MoreEssay on Legalizing Marijuana-Persuasive Outline941 Words   |  4 PagesOutline Purpose: To persuade my audience to: support the legalization of marijuana, because of it being able to provide many medical as well as economic benefits for the United States if legalized. Thesis Statement: Marijuana has been regarded as a harmful plant that can endanger lives and is thought to be nothing more than an extra problem to be dealt with in today’s society. However, based on its economic value and medical benefits, the cannabis has proven to outweigh its negatives with numerousRead MoreShould Marijuana Be Legalized? Essay1372 Words   |  6 PagesLegalization of Weed Growing up, everyone is told that, â€Å"Drugs are bad for you,† time and time again. Now as a kid you don’t really understand the reasoning behind it, but you listen to your authority figure regardless. I remember being told this my entire life and even to this very day. But as I got older I realized that people would still use drugs even though it’s illegal. I could never understand why someone would go against the law and jeopardize their life just to use drugs? The drug thatRead MoreMarijuana Legalization1424 Words   |  6 PagesLegalization of Marijuana Marijuana is the most common drug in America and all over the world. It is legalized in some countries, but most countries prohibit its use. It has proven medical abilities and was used for this purpose for a while before being federally criminalized. The United States has been debating on the legalization of marijuana with some states supporting the move and others against it. (10 Facts About Marijuana) Despite all these debates, the legalization of marijuana is theRead MoreIt Is Time to Legalize Marijana1700 Words   |  7 Pagestalking about is marijuana, and surprisingly it is all around us. Marijuana is even referred to in today’s media Mainstream media sources that people enjoy, like music, movies, and TV shows, do not even bother to leave the drug out of their system. Now being a young adult and having my own personal experience with the drug and knowing its effects on others, I wonder why it’s not legal. Why is it that this drug has become illegal all over the world? The debate to legalize marijuana in the UnitedRead MoreThe Benefits of Legalization Marijuana Essay1124 Words   |  5 PagesThe Benefits of Legalization Marijuana There are many political groups and religious group that ague against the legalization of marijuana. They state that there are no benefits in legalizing the drugs but researches and economist disagree with that report. There are many benefits in the legalization. The first one is the enormous affect that it could have on the economy growth of the United States. A Harvard University professor of economic Jeffrey Miron , has crunched the numbers and he’sRead MoreThe Debate Over The Legalization of Marijuana Essay examples1363 Words   |  6 Pages  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  In economics, a mixed market economy is one in which the actions of private businesses are affected by public actions and decisions. In the United States, there are governmental actions that decided just how much intervention will be used on a business. This is a redundant topic, as the two political parties, Republican and Democrat, debate the issue frequently. The idea of â€Å"laissez-faire† is a free market economy where businesses have the right to do whatever they want. Republicans tend to

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Postal Rule of Acceptance Free Essays

Four main justifications of Postal Acceptance Rule i. ‘Ad infinitum’ Justification Postal rule had existed almost for 200 years and the post had been creating problems for people which the courts are obliged to solve them logically. Why it had been creating so many problems for people and that we will be discussing later on. We will write a custom essay sample on Postal Rule of Acceptance or any similar topic only for you Order Now For now let’s look at the four main justifications for postal rule of acceptance. It came from Treitel and he believes that the four main justifications are for the creation of postal rule. First of all, the first justification is the â€Å"Ad Infinitum† justification where its main rationale is that acceptance by post has to be valid on posting because if there were no postings which mean there is no contract formed. Based on the case of Adam v Lindsell, the defendant actually mail the offer of selling wool to plaintiff and the plaintiff was requested on mailing back to the defendant. Unfortunately there was an error in the offered price and plaintiff did not receive it. We can thus conclude that the defendant had not receive the letter of acceptance and therefore the defendant assume that the plaintiff did not want to accept his offer so he sold the wool to a third party. There was actually a contract exists before the sale of the wool because acceptance made right after the mail is being mailed. Therefore, the defendant was liable in breach of contract. In this case, it might go on ad infinitum because once mail is being posted which means that acceptance is being made. Of course, there is a high level of uncertainty because of the distance between the two parties causing them difficulties for the formation of contract. ii. ‘Symbolic Act’ Justification In this justification, rationale being that the offeror must be considered as continually making (the offer) until he has brought to the knowledge of the person to whom it made that it is withdraw. Based on the case of Brogden v Directors of Metropolitan Railway Co, there was a contract sent by the defendant (Directors of Metropolitan Railway) to the plaintiff (Brogden) regarding the contract. The plaintiff agreed the contract by signing it and return to the defendant. The defendant then filled in the blanks without informing the plaintiff about the acceptance. Since there is no acceptance being communicated between the both parties, the plaintiff did not supply the company with coals. Thus, there was subsequently a dispute arose that whether the written agreement was valid. Although the action of communication of acceptance had not been showed clearly, in fact the written agreement was valid despite no acceptance being informed. Reason being both parties had already agreed on the terms of the contract without any objections. In the real world, we do not see an offeror consistently making an offer to people, and subsequently this justification seems to be attempting to affect a useful acceptance rule rather than providing any real rationale for the postal rule. ——————————————– [ 1 ]. The Law of Contract, 11th Edition, 2003 page 25 [ 2 ]. Stevenson P. J, 2010 [ 3 ]. (1818) 1 BA 681 [ 4 ]. Henthorn v Fraser (1892) 2 Ch. 27 [ 5 ]. Stevenson P. J, 2010 How to cite Postal Rule of Acceptance, Essay examples

Monday, April 27, 2020

Unsung Hero Essay Research Paper Unsung HeroDefining free essay sample

Unsung Hero Essay, Research Paper Unsung Hero Specifying the word hero is hard. The dictionary provinces that a hero is any individual admired for bravery, aristocracy, or feats, particularly in war. For most people, the definition of hero is left to reading. Some people believe a hero is an exceeding jock, but others think it is the local bull that made the intelligence for a occupation good done. It is all up to the person who is specifying what a hero is. Jan Karski is a hero for several grounds ; he proved to be brave, demonstrated his intelligence, and he lived to state his narrative. It is frequently said that Karski tried to halt the war himself and failed ( O? Keefe ) . His effort to halt the war did neglect but his voice was heard. Through his attempts, other states became more involved and they opened their eyes to what was traveling on. We will write a custom essay sample on Unsung Hero Essay Research Paper Unsung HeroDefining or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page Though he did neglect, he played an of import function which helped stop the war. Jan Karski was born in 1914, in Lodz Poland ( Block 170 ) . He was the youngest of eight kids. Karski? s male parent died when he was immature and neer cognizing his male parent left him unable to love him. On the other had, he had great regard for his female parent, he loved her ( Block 170 ) . Through school he was a good pupil. His strong topics were history, poesy and literature. Harmonizing to Karski, ? Jews were ever strong in scientific discipline, ? and throughout his school old ages, he was great friends with a group of Judaic male childs. This group of immature work forces, including Karski would assist each other with their surveies. Karski finished school in 1931, his female parent did non desire him to travel into the military so he went to college alternatively. He majored in jurisprudence an diplomatic scientific discipline and received his maestro? s grade in 1935 ( Block 170 ) . After graduating from the university, Karski began working for the League of Nations and in 1939, he became the secretary of the Department of Immigration, and he became the private secretary of the manager of forces in the Foreign Ministry. As the war became more of a menace, Karski took on new functions. Karski started in the armed forces when the Nazis invaded Poland. After the armed forces he serviced as a propagandist and Polish undercover agent during the war. He subsequently fell into the function of messenger for the Polish Underground. Here, his bravery became obvious. Karski, who had been a practising Catholic, converted to the Judaic faith. He stated: ? Like the household of my married woman? all of them perished in the ghettos, in the concentration cantonments, in the gas Chamberss? so wholly murdered Jews became my household? ( Wood ) . Though Karski witnessed some of the most hideous Acts of the Apostless in history, he managed to stand up for himself and for the 1000000s of other people who died in vain during the holocaust. The victims of the Holocaust died in vain because at the clip 1000000s of people were being in secret murdered. Upon observation, Karski realized that the authorities and civilians candidly had no Idaho Ea of what was traveling on. They knew really small about the horrendace acts that were taking topographic point during the war. Those who did cognize, turned the other cheek because they did non desire to acquire involved. Karski proved his bravery by put on the lining his life. He endured the anguish of the decease cantonments in order to happen out what was traveling on interior. He would so show his intelligence by lasting the cantonments and in the terminal, being sane plenty to state about them. Much of what Karski reported was so incredible that many people could non believe what he said. Cipher was naming Karski a prevaricator, but the events he depicted were so impossible they couldn? t believe these flagitious offenses were traveling on. He would state of the anguish that guiltless people endured. He told of the mass slayings in the gas Chamberss and the trials that were being performed in secret research labs. Karski had lived through many tragic personal businesss. When all was said and done he took clip to compose a book. All though, he had been composing during the war, he now took in everything he had experienced and all that he had seen, and put his escapades in composing for all the universe to digest. In his book he revisited his yesteryear and told his Narrative of a Secret State. His book told of the atrociousnesss that he witnessed and of the atrocious memories that still haunted him. He bared his psyche and left his character unfastened to judgement. His actions non merely competition he was a hero, but it proves he was. After he had written his book and lived his life, Karski appeared in the movie Shoah where he acted out the events of his life in the Warsaw ghetto. The war left Karski scarred, but it did non halt him from carry throughing a long life. After the war he went on to learn political scientific discipline at the Georgetown University. Many say that he is non a hero but after all he had been through and all he has taught the universe, he is decidedly worthy of being called a hero. Jan Karski defined bravery and intelligence during war clip and throughout his life and thanks to him, we have the books to remind us of what he went through to assist salvage the universe. Block, Gay and Drucker. Saviors: Portrayals of moral Courage in the Holocaust. New York? London: Holmes A ; Meier Publishers, Inc. , 1992 Cavanah, Frances ( erectile dysfunction ) . We Wanted to be Free: the Refugees? Own Stories. Philadelphia: Macrae Smith Company. , 1971 Lewin, Zofia and Wladyslaw Bartoszewski. ? Jan Karski? s Account. ? University of Pennsylvania: Department of English Home Page. 1999. 1 October 2000. O? Keefe, Theodore J. ? A Secret Report by Jan Karski. ? The Journal for Historical Review ( www.irh.org. ) . 1986. 1 October 2000. Wood, E. Thomas and Stanislaw M. Jankowski. Karski: How One Man Tried to Stop the Holocaust. metropolis: John Wiley A ; Sons, Inc. , 1994

Thursday, March 19, 2020

Internationalisation Strategy for Fukamo Automobiles Company

Internationalisation Strategy for Fukamo Automobiles Company Executive Summary Fukamo Automobiles Company is a leading cars manufacturer in Brazil. The company intends to roll out an internationalisation strategy to expand to other parts of the world. The objectives of the organisation include becoming a leader in the automotive industry.Advertising We will write a custom report sample on Internationalisation Strategy for Fukamo Automobiles Company specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The following report proposes an internationalisation strategy for Fukamo Automobiles Company. The strategy highlights the intentions of the company to tap into the European market. The proposed plan illustrates a strategic alliance with automobile companies in Germany, such as BMW. The Germany automotive industry is expected to provide the company with the best opportunity for innovation, production technology, and expansion. Company Background Fukamo Automobiles was started in 1912. It is one of the leading cars man ufacturing companies in Latin America with headquarters in Rio de Janeiro. The company intends to expand its operations into Europe. It hopes to develop and enhance its capabilities in product development and in research and design. According to the management, the capabilities are important if the company is to attain its objective of becoming a leader in the industry. The major aim of this organisation is to gain technological prowess from the European venture. The development will help it to expand its operations throughout Europe and the USA. The following report provides the management with a proposition for the best country to focus on in Europe. Investing in the proposed country is expected to provide Fukamo with the opportunity to attain the desired objectives. In addition, the report provides advice on the preferred entry mode into the European country. Suggestions on how to effectively manage institutional and cultural differences and other issues are also made.Advertising Looking for report on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The Proposed European Country for the Venture The preferred country for Fukamo’s internationalisation venture is Germany. The main goal for the company’s entry in Europe is to strategically derive technological innovations in automobile production. It is also aimed at enhancing Fukamo’s research and design capabilities. Germany is the best destination due to various factors. The country accounts for 20.2% of the European automobile market. German automobile industry is dominated by such companies as BMW, Volkswagen, and DaimlerChrysler. They are leading and reputable companies in the global market. The German automobile industry is very advanced technologically. The reality is evidenced by the influential automobile brands originating from the country, such as Mercedes Benz. According to Hagiu and Clipici (2009), internat ionalisation entails adopting exchange transaction modalities in relation to international markets. The strategy involves both market selection and entry modes. German automobile industry provides Fukamo with these opportunities. Pangarkar and Yuan (2009) highlight the issue of location in multinational businesses. Pangarkar and Yuan (2009) contend that this constitutes one of the major and complex decisions for these corporations. The internationalisation strategy must enhance Fukamo’s operations through innovative technology and product and design. The company can be regarded as a born-global regardless of the fact that it has no presence in Europe or USA. Chetty and Campbell-Hunt (2004) define born-global organisations as those that seek attainment of significant competitive advantage. The advantage is achieved through the use of resources and sale of outputs to multiple countries.Advertising We will write a custom report sample on Internationalisation Strategy for Fukamo Automobiles Company specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Germany has more than 125 years of experience in the production of automobiles. It is home to the world’s first internal four-stroke combustion engine (Germany Trade Invest 2013). The country, as a result, occupies a strategic position in relation to the global automotive industry. Its original equipment manufacturers’ (OEMs) account for 17% of the global production of passenger cars (Germany Trade Invest 2013). The automotive industry is the most important sector in Germany’s economy. The country has the highest concentration of OEM plants in Europe. It has an annual budget of $19.6 billion that is dedicated to research and design. The investment is reflected in the environmentally friendly technologies originating from the country (Germany Trade Invest 2013). It is estimated that about 10 patents are registered in the country each day. Such a number makes Germany the leading innovator in the world (Germany Trade Invest 2013). Fukamo is known for its extensive investment in research and development. What this means is that the operations of the company are compatible with the situation in Germany (Yip, Biscarri Monti 2000). Germany is strategically located in Europe. The location is essential for expansion purposes in the region. From Sweden, one can access the country in about 3 hours by train. A truck takes about 24 hours to travel from Spain to Germany. Ukraine is 30 hours away by train (Germany Trade Invest 2013). Institutional and Cultural Differences Various institutional and cultural factors come into play with regards to internationalisation. The differences between Fukamo and other automobile companies in Germany are informed by these factors (Buckley 1993). The success of Fukamo’s internationalisation strategy is determined by these differences (Taggart 1998).Advertising Looking for report on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More According to Hill (2010), the operations of international companies are affected by social, economic, technological, and political elements. The concepts of national business systems, culture, and institutions are very essential in internationalisation (Pan Xiaolian 2000). Institutional culture determines the impacts of social institutions on international organisations (Freyssenet Lung 2007). National culture and institutions expand the span of the institutional approach (Leung Ang 2008). Hill (2010) conceptualises national business systems as formal institutional structures. The systems may be categorised into command (communist) and capitalist (liberal) economies (Hill 2010). The categories are generalised since national business systems vary between different countries (Madsen Servais 1997). Brazil and Germany share a common national business system, which is capitalism. However, the economy varies between the two countries. Germany exercises social market capitalism. In thi s case, strong social controls are imposed on business organisations (Hill 2010). On the other hand, Brazil falls under the category of developmental capitalism (Hill 2010). Here, governments play a critical role in directing economic development. Cooperation between businesses and the state are either formal or informal (Luo 2001). The similarities between the two countries’ business systems make Germany the ideal location for Fukamo’s internationalisation initiative. The technological, research and design, and innovative benefits in Germany outweigh the cost of business in the country (Jones 1999; Kogut 1988). Fukamo Automobiles Company is familiar with capitalism. The familiarity will facilitate integration into the European and the US economies (Jones 1999). The company will adapt to the global economy with ease. The formal and informal organisational structures in Germany support those in Brazil (Huei-Ting Eisingerich 2010). The influence of national culture on F ukamo as it enters Germany and the larger Europe cannot be underestimated. The culture is associated with subjective constructs, which include beliefs and values (Kim Hwang 1992). According to the institutional theory, organisational culture is affected by institutionalised variables among societies (Williams Martinez 2012). The impacts of these variations on Fukamo should be mapped out. Williams and Martinez (2012) define national culture as a system of shared values and norms. The values and norms give rise to a way of life. The concept of national culture is critical in determining the entry of an organisation into another society (Wild, Wild Han 2010). Hofstede’s cultural framework can be used to analyse the situation in Brazil and Germany. From this perspective, it appears that national culture between the two countries differs. The success of Fukamo in Germany will depend, to a large extent, on the approach adopted by the company with regards to cross-cultural awaren ess and development (Wild et al. 2010). The company needs to identify the unique competitive advantages in the German culture. Conforming to the ethics of the host country is also important (Bradley Gannon 2000). Fukamo Automobiles’ Entry Mode According to Malhotra, Ulgado and Agarwal (2003), there are several strategies that can be used to attain internationalisation. The internationalisation concept can be analysed from a multi-theoretical perspective in relation to timing and mode of entry. Various entry modalities and moderating influences play a major role in determining the success of the selected mode. Two major approaches are applied in internationalisation. They include the strategic and the sequential approaches. The interfirm networks, experiences, and personal relationships explain the various stages and processes of internationalisation. Studies have shown that sequential entry is less popular in developing countries compared to the strategic approach (Malhotra et al. 2003). The latter is highly preferred especially in technology accumulation (Balcet Enrietti n.d). Malhotra et al. (2003) advance several theories in relation to modes of entry. The theories focus on expansion and foreign direct investments. They include resource advantage, market imperfections, strategic behaviour, and transaction cost theories. Others include network and internationalisation theories, as well as the eclectic theory of international production (Rugman Verbeke 2003). The resource advantage (RA) theory is applicable to Fukamo’s expansion to Germany. Under this theory, firms compete on the premise that resources are heterogonous. In addition, the resources are immobile. The second premise is that intraindustry demand is very diverse. Consequently, firms need to diversify in size, scope, and profitability. As indicated, some resources are diverse and static. As such, some firms exhibit comparative advantage. The advantages translate to superior performa nce and competitiveness. It appears that TA theory supports the international trade theory, which highlights the issue of comparative advantage (Hofstede 1980). It is also comparable to organisational capability theory (Andersen 1993). Fukamo has access to informational, physical, legal, relational, and human resources. It should enter the German market with the aim of developing its comparative advantage, societal resources, and capabilities. The objectives constitute the main goal of leadership in technology, innovation, and market expansion. They are geared towards the establishment of sustainable competitive advantage for the company (Davis, Desai Francis 2000). According to Malhotra et al. (2003), internationalisation, together with the preferred entry mode, is associated with a number of processes. They include exporting, licensing, and joint ventures. Others are licensing, franchising, and strategic alliances (Malhotra et al. 2003). Fukamo should embrace contractual agreemen ts to address these entry modes. The approach is in line with the company’s internationalisation objectives. It is apparent that the German automotive industry is more vibrant compared to that in Brazil. In light of this, collaboration and contractual arrangements would support the company’s expansion initiative. Contractual agreements include strategic alliances, joint ventures, and collaborations with leading German automobile companies. Conclusion Internationalisation is common among many organisations aspiring to remain competitive in the global market. The proposed internationalisation strategy takes into consideration the expansion aspirations of Fukamo. Adherence to the strategy provides a firm foundation for the implementation of the plan in the company. Globalisation presents organisations with opportunities to expand their market share, presence, and dominance through internationalisation. Trade deregulation and liberalisation have opened up new markets and b locs. Strategic internationalisation can be effectively used to ‘scramble’ for the growing international markets. Strategic alliances are effective as far as access to these markets is concerned. References Andersen, O 1993, ‘On the internationalization process of the firms: a critical analysis’, Journal of International Business Studies, vol. 24 no. 2, pp. 209-231. Balcet, G Enrietti, A n.d. The impact of focused globalisation in the Italian automotive industry, econ.uniurb.it/zanfei/convegno/papers/balcet_enrietti.pdf. Bradley, F Gannon, M 2000, ‘Does the firm’s technology and marketing profile affect foreign market entry?’, Journal of International Marketing, vol. 8 no. 4, pp.12-36. Buckley, P 1993, ‘The role of management in internalization theory’, Management International Review, vol. 33 no. 3, pp. 197-207. Chetty, S Campbell-Hunt, C 2004, ‘A strategic approach to internationalization: a traditional versus a born-global approach’, Journal of International Marketing, vol. 12 no. 1, pp. 57-81. Davis, P, Desai, A Francis, J 2000, ‘Mode of international entry: an isomorphism perspective’, Journal of International Business Studies, vol. 31 no. 2, pp. 239-258. Freyssenet, M Lung, Y 2007, Car firms’ strategies and practices in Europe, freyssenet.com/files/Car%20firms%20strategies%20and%20practices%20in%20Europe.pdf. Germany Trade Invest 2013, The automotive industry in Germany, ixpos.de/IXPOS/Content/EN/Your-business-in-germany/_SharedDocs/Downloads/automotive-industry-in-germany.pdf. Hagiu, A Clipici, E 2009, The internationalization strategy in a global age, itchannel.ro/faa/375_pdfsam_ICEA_FAA_2009.pdf. Hill, C 2010, International business: competing in the global marketplace, 8th edn, McGraw Hill, New York. Hofstede, G 1980, Culture’s consequences: international differences in work-related values, SAGE Publications, London. Huei-Ting, T Eisingerich, A 2010, ‘Internationalization strategies of emerging markets firms’, California Management Review, vol. 53 no. 1, p. 114. Jones, M 1999, ‘The internationalization of small high-technology firms’, Journal of International Marketing, vol. 7 no. 4, pp. 15-41. Kim, W Hwang, P 1992, ‘Global strategy and multinationals’ entry mode choice’, Journal of International Business Studies, vol. 23 no. 1, pp. 29-53. Kogut, B 1988, ‘Joint ventures: theoretical and empirical perspectives’, Strategic Management Journal, vol. 9 no. 4, pp. 319-332. Leung, K Ang, S 2008, Culture, organizations, and institutions: an integrative review, culturalq.com/docs/Leung%20%26%20Ang%202008.pdf. Luo, Y 2001, ‘Determinants of local responsiveness: perspectives from foreign subsidiaries in an emerging market’, Journal of Management, vol. 27 no. 4, pp. 451-477. Madsen, K Servais, P 1997, ‘The internationalisation of born globals: an evolut ionary process?’, International Business Review, vol. 6 no. 6, pp. 561–583. Malhotra, N, Ulgado, F Agarwal, J 2003, ‘Internationalisation and entry modes: a multitheoretical framework and research propositions’, Journal of International Marketing, vol. 11 no. 4, pp.1-31. Pan, Y Xiaolian, L 2000, ‘Joint venture formation of very large multinational firms’, Journal of International Business Studies, vol. 31 no. 1, pp. 179-189. Pangarkar, N Yuan, L 2009, ‘Location in internationalization strategy: determinants and consequences’, Multinational Business Review, vol. 17 no. 2, pp. 45-46. Rugman, A Verbeke, A 2003, ‘Extending the theory of the multinational enterprise: internalization and strategic management perspectives’, Journal of International Business Studies, vol. 34 no. 2, pp. 125-137. Taggart, J 1998, ‘Strategy shifts in MNC subsidiaries’, Strategic Management Journal, vol. 19 no. 7, pp. 663-681. Wi ld, J, Wild, K Han, J 2010, International business: the challenges of globalization, 5th edn, Pearson Education, Inc., New Jersey, USA. Williams, C Martinez, C 2012. ‘Government effectiveness, the global financial crisis, and multinational enterprise internationalization’, Journal of International Marketing, vol. 20 no. 3, pp. 65-78. Yip, G, Biscarri, G Monti, J 2000, ‘The role of internationalization process in the performance of newly internationalizing firms’, Journal of International Marketing, vol. 8, no. 3, p. 10. Appendices Appendix I:Â  Germany Automobile Market Value:$billion, 1999-2003 Appendix II:Â  Germany Automobile Market Volume Forecast: Units Million, 2003-2008 Appendix III:Â  Germany’s Strategic Location in Europe Source: Germany Trade Invest (2013). Appendix IV:Â  World’s most Competitive Auto Location Source: Germany Trade Invest (2013). Appendix V: Internationalisation Strategy: A Reflection Personally, I learn t a lot in relation to development of an internationalisation strategy, especially its application in the global business platform. The difficult part involved developing the strategy in line with the stipulated procedures. Choosing the best entry mode also required critical considerations. In spite of the various elements related to the internationalisation process, I realised that there was lack of a ‘merged’ or comprehensive theoretical framework. The framework should have provided explanations on the internationalisation process, timing strategies, and entry modes. However, analysis of existing literature enabled me to develop a unified framework for the strategy. The internationalisation strategy developed was customised to fit into the objectives of Fukamo Automobiles Company. Analysis of the various foundational theories regarding internationalisation and entry modes helped me to develop a conceptual framework. The framework enhanced my understanding of the conce pts of internationalisation and entry modes. I used this knowledge to address the expansion objectives of Fukamo Automobiles Company. I provided the management with suggestions on how to implement the internationalisation strategy. A review of the impacts of technology, national cultures, as well as social and economic challenges provided information on international markets. An organisation venturing into the global market must be prepared to cope with these challenges. If the company fails to deal with these issues, its chances of success in international markets are minimised. The undertaking informed my knowledge in relation to internationalisation and international markets. With this knowledge, I am well prepared to work for a multinational corporation in the future. The challenge of understanding and excelling in the current global market is thrilling when exploited using internationalisation.

Tuesday, March 3, 2020

Wall Building

Wall Building A couple of comments in emails, on Facebook, and yes, even in person, made me sad this week. When a person was confronted with an opportunity, they spoke first about how they could not do it. Without flinching. Without a thought about trying to find a way to learn. They are building walls across a flat piece of ground that could lead to success. Examples: I am afraid to publish because I dont understand the difference between self-publishing and traditional. Darn, I dont know how to write a short story to enter that contest. Someone will tell me Im bragging if I tout my writing in public. Im afraid someone will steal my idea. I dont have enough money to publish. So many writers see the obstacles before they envision the opportunity. They feel the pain before they get injured. They flinch before they are pricked. As I told the Nebraska Writers Guild last week: Go ahead and be afraid. Go ahead and hold back, fearful of what to do next, because that just gives me and all these other people the chance to pass you Whatever you think, do, or hold back doing, takes energy. You can infuse your energy into being proactive and learning how to proceed, or you can expend your energy worrying about what might go wrong. With the first, you might gain headway. With the second, you get nowhere. Make a decision, then pursue the solution or march toward the goal. Read short stories and learn how to write them. Study the difference between publishing opportunities until you are comfortable in your choice. Decide if youre worried more about publishing or what people might say about you. Dare to submit, realizing the odds of someone stealing your work is miniscule. Save your money or start a crowdfunding project on Kickstarter.com and earn the money you need. There are options. There are opportunities. But you have to reach out for them. They do not come to you.

Saturday, February 15, 2020

Supply Chain Information Management Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words

Supply Chain Information Management - Assignment Example This paper evaluates the Amazon’s distribution channel and its evolution. Amazon started in 1994 as a book store that was launched by Jeff Bezos and it took its shape of the Amazon.com since then. Notably, Amazon was initiated on a value proposition anchored on four dimensions. The four dimensions helped Jeff Bezos to focus on service to the customer, the price, selection and the convenience of the products and services it would offer online. The Amazon online inventory consisted of many items and this offered the customers a wide range of choices as compared to any physical store. Moreover, the website was constructed such that it kept the download period very low while offering platforms for reviews that were later used for its improvement. Originally, the online store was constructed such that customers for books would be satisfied by being supplied from the warehouse of Amazon while it enjoyed its benefit of time and cost efficiencies. As such, the Amazon built several ten warehouses that were situated in ten states with least or no tax for sales (Jansen, Bernard, Amanda & Isak 2009). Amazon would then order books from the warehouses after customers had agreed to pay for them and hence low return costs. After a period of time, the Amazon warehouses were increased worldwide and also the number of products stored in the warehouses increased. The products in the warehouse were well kept and computerized so that the number lines of a product in the warehouse matched those of the product stocked online. When a customer ordered a product, for example, a book, automatically the order mentioned the title of the product and then a barcode. As a result of this process, computers would then signal the workers that a particular product was not supposed to be on the shelf and then they would verify the order and pick it for parceling. Currently, the distribution channel